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Published in the year 2013, Indian Polity For Civil Services Examinations is a book that provides the readers with insight into important topics that need to be understood by students to clear the civil services examination.

Summary Of The Book

Indian Polity For Civil Services Examinations has been designed to meet the requirements of students preparing for civil service examinations. This book covers the entire syllabus, which civil service aspirants need to understand.

This book has been divided into 11 parts, which include Constitutional Framework, Central Government, System of Government, State Government, Constitutional Bodies, Union Territories And Special Areas, Local Government, Non-Constitutional Bodies, Other Constitutional Dimensions, Political Dynamics, and Working of the Constitution.

The first part of the book deals with the historical background of the constitution, and throws light on fundamental rights, fundamental duties, citizenship, and features of the constitution. The second part deals with the parliamentary system, emergency provisions, special provision for certain states, inter-state relations, and the current status of Jammu & Kashmir. The third part provides insight into the central government by explaining the roles of the President, Prime Minister, and Vice-President. In the fourth part, students are provided detailed information on the state government, explaining the role of the Chief Minister, Governor, state council of ministers, subordinate courts, and high court.

In the fifth part, the readers are provided insight into the Panchayati Raj as well as urban local governments. The sixth part deals with union territories, and scheduled, and tribal areas. In the seventh part, the author throws light on the constitutional bodies, which include the finance commission, election commission, advocate general of the state, special officer for linguistic minorities, national commission for SCs, national commission for STs, and union public service commission.

The eighth part of this book throws light on the planning commission, national human rights commission, state human rights commission, lokpal, and lokayuktas, central vigilance commission, and state information commission. In the ninth part, the readers are provided insight into public services, anti-defection law, tribunals, and special provisions for ST’s, Anglo-Indian’s, minorities, and BC’s. In the tenth part, the readers are also provided insight into national integration, foreign policy, pressure groups, political parties, and elections. The eleventh part deals with the national commission’s plan to examine the constitution’s working.

In this third edition, the author also provides 7 appendices at the end of the book. The appendices cover topics such as table of precedence, definitions under the constitution, constitutional amendments at a glance, subjects of union, state, and concurrent lists, articles of the constitution, and ministries/departments of the central government. This edition of Indian Polity For Civil Services also comes with updated UPSC preliminary, and main question papers as well.

About M. Laxmikanth

M. Laxmikanth is an author, and trainer.

Apart from this book, Laxmikanth has written Governance in India for UPSC Civil Services Preliminary Examination, Indian Polity, and Public Administration.

Laxmikanth completed his master’s degree from Osmania University in 1989. Following that, he started his own coaching academy, Laxmikanth’s IAS. Laxmikanth has a great deal of experience coaching civil service aspirants.


Part I

Constitutional Framework
1. Historical Background

  • The Company Rule (1773—1858)
  • The Crown Rule (1858—1947)
  • Notes and References

2. Making of the Constitution

  • Composition of the Constituent Assembly
  • Working of the Constituent Assembly
  • Committees of the Constituent Assembly
  • Enactment of the Constitution
  • Enforcement of the Constitution
  • Criticism of the Constituent Assembly
  • Notes and References

3. Salient Features of the Constitution

  • Introduction
  • Salient Features of the Constitution
  • Notes and References

4. Preamble of the Constitution

  • Text of the Preamble
  • Ingredients of the Preamble
  • Key Words in the Preamble
  • Significance of the Preamble
  • Preamble as Part of the Constitution
  • Amendability of the Preamble
  • Notes and References

5. Union and its Territory

  • Union of States
  • Parliament’s Power to Reorganise the States
  • Evolution of States and Union Territories
  • Notes and References

6. Citizenship

  • Meaning and Significance
  • Constitutional Provisions
  • Citizenship Act, 1955
  • Single Citizenship
  • Notes and References

7. Fundamental Rights

  • Features of Fundamental Rights
  • Definition of State
  • Laws Inconsistent with Fundamental Rights
  • Right to Equality
  • Right to Freedom
  • Right Against Exploitation
  • Right to Freedom of Religion
  • Cultural and Educational Rights
  • Right to Constitutional Remedies
  • Writs–Types and Scope
  • Armed Forces and Fundamental Rights
  • Martial Law and Fundamental Rights
  • Effecting Certain Fundamental Rights
  • Present Position of Right to Property
  • Exceptions to Fundamental Right
  • Criticism of Fundamental Rights
  • Significance of Fundamental Rights
  • Rights Outside Part III
  • Notes and References

8. Directive Principles of State Policy

  • Features of the Directive Principles
  • Classification of the Directive Principles
  • New Directive Principles
  • Sanction Behind Directive Principles
  • Criticism of the Directive Principles
  • Utility of Directive Principles
  • Conflict Between Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles
  • Implementation of Directive Principles
  • Directives Outside Part IV
  • Notes and References

9. Fundamental Duties

  • Swaran Singh Committee Recommendations
  • List of Fundamental Duties
  • Features of the Fundamental Duties
  • Criticism of Fundamental Duties
  • Significance of Fundamental Duties
  • Verma Committee Observations
  • Notes and References

10. Amendment of the Constitution

  • Procedure for Amendment
  • Types of Amendments
  • Criticism of the Amendment Procedure
  • Notes and References

11. Basic Structure of the Constitution

  • Emergence of the Basic Structure
  • Elements of the Basic Structure
  • Notes and References

Part II
System of Government

12. Parliamentary System

  • Features of Parliamentary Government
  • Features of Presidential Government
  • Merits of the Parliamentary System
  • Demerits of the Parliamentary System
  • Reasons for Adopting Parliamentary System
  • Distinction between Indian and British Models
  • Notes and References

13. Federal System

  • Federal Features of the Constitution
  • Unitary Features of the Constitution
  • Critical Evaluation of the Federal System
  • Notes and References

14. Centre—State Relations

  • Legislative Relations
  • Administrative Relations
  • Financial Relations
  • Trends in Centre—State Relations
  • Notes and References

15. Inter-State Relations

  • Inter-state Water Disputes
  • Inter-State Councils
  • Public Acts, Records and Judicial Proceedings
  • Inter-State Trade and Commerce
  • Zonal Councils
  • Notes and References

16. Emergency Provisions

  • National Emergency
  • President’s Rule
  • Financial Emergency
  • Criticism of the Emergency Provisions
  • Notes and References

Part III
Central Government

17. President

  • Election of the President
  • Qualifications, Oath and Conditions
  • Term, Impeachment and Vacancy
  • Powers and Functions of the President
  • Veto Power of the President
  • Ordinance-making Power of the President
  • Pardoning Power of the President
  • Constitutional Position of the President
  • Notes and References

18. Vice-President

  • Election
  • Qualifications
  • Oath or Affirmation
  • Conditions of Office
  • Term of Office
  • Vacancy in Office
  • Election Disputes
  • Powers and Functions
  • Indian and American Vice-Presidents Compared
  • Emoluments
  • Notes and References

19. Prime Minister

  • Appointment of the Prime Minister
  • Oath, Term and Salary
  • Powers and Functions of the Prime Minister 1
  • Role Descriptions
  • Relationship with the President
  • Chief Ministers who became Prime Ministers
  • Notes and References

20. Central Council of Ministers

  • Constitutional Provisions
  • Nature of Advice by Ministers
  • Appointment of Ministers
  • Responsibility of Ministers
  • Composition of the Council of Ministers
  • Council of Ministers Vs Cabinet
  • Role of Cabinet
  • Role Descriptions
  • Kitchen Cabinet
  • Notes and References

21. Cabinet Committees

  • Features of Cabinet Committees
  • List of Cabinet Committees
  • Functions of Cabinet Committees
  • Groups of Ministers
  • Notes and References

22. Parliament

  • Organisation of Parliament
  • Composition of the Two Houses
  • System of Elections to Lok Sabha
  • Duration of Two Houses
  • Membership of Parliament
  • Presiding Officers of Parliament
  • Leaders in Parliament
  • Sessions of Parliament
  • Devices of Parliamentary Proceedings
  • Legislative Procedure in Parliament
  • Joint Sitting of Two Houses
  • Budget in Parliament
  • Multifunctional Role of Parliament
  • Ineffectiveness of Parliamentary Control
  • Position of Rajya Sabha
  • Parliamentary Privileges
  • Sovereignty of Parliament
  • Notes and References

23. Parliamentary Committees

  • Meaning and Classification
  • Notes and References

24. Parliamentary Forums

  • Establishment of Forums
  • Objectives of the Forums
  • Composition of the Forums
  • Functions of the Forums
  • Notes and References

25. Supreme Court

  • Organisation of Supreme Court
  • Seat of Supreme Court
  • Procedure of the Court
  • Independence of Supreme Court
  • Jurisdiction and Powers of Supreme Court
  • Supreme Court Advocates
  • Notes and References”

Part IV
State Government

26. Governor

  • Appointment of Governor
  • Conditions of Governor’s Office
  • Term of Governor’s Office
  • Powers and Functions of Governor
  • Constitutional Position of Governor
  • Notes and References

27. Chief Minister

  • Appointment of Chief Minister
  • Oath, Term and Salary
  • Powers and Functions of Chief Minister
  • Relationship with the Governor
  • Notes and References

28. State Council of Ministers

  • Constitutional Provisions
  • Nature of Advice by Ministers
  • Appointment of Ministers
  • Oath and Salary of Ministers
  • Responsibility of Ministers
  • Composition of the Council of Ministers
  • Cabinet
  • Notes and References

29. State Legislature

  • Organisation of State Legislature
  • Composition of Two Houses
  • Duration of Two Houses
  • Membership of State Legislature
  • Presiding Officers of State Legislature
  • Sessions of State Legislature
  • Legislative Procedure in State Legislature
  • Position of Legislative Council
  • Privileges of State Legislature
  • Notes and References

30. High Court

  • Organisation of High Court
  • Independence of High Court
  • Jurisdiction and Powers of High Court
  • Notes and References

31. Subordinate Courts

  • Constitutional Provisions
  • Structure and Jurisdiction
  • Notes and Reference

32. Special Status of Jammu & K ashmir

  • Accession of J&K to India
  • Present Relationship Between J&K and India
  • Features of J&K Constitution
  • J&K Autonomy Resolution Rejected
  • Group of Interlocutors for J&K
  • Notes and References

33. Special Provisions for Some States

  • Provisions for Maharashtra and Gujarat
  • Provisions for Nagaland
  • Provisions for Assam and Manipur
  • Provisions for Andhra Pradesh
  • Provisions for Sikkim
  • Provisions for Mizoram
  • Provisions for Arunachal Pradesh and Goa
  • Provisions for Karnataka
  • Notes and References

Part V
Local Government

34. Panchayati Raj

  • Evolution of Panchayati Raj
  • 73rd Amendment Act of 1992
  • Compulsory and Voluntary Provisions
  • Pesa Act of 1996 (Extension Act)
  • Notes and References

35. Municipalities

  • Evolution of Urban Bodies
  • 74th Amendment Act of 1992
  • Types of Urban Governments
  • Municipal Personnel
  • Central Council of Local Government
  • Notes and References

Part VI
Union Territories and Special Areas

36. Union Territories

  • Creation of Union Territories
  • Administration of Union Territories
  • Special Provisions for Delhi
  • Advisory Committees of Union Territories
  • Notes and References

37. Scheduled and Tribal A reas

  • Administration of Scheduled Areas
  • Administration of Tribal Areas
  • Notes and References

Part VII
Constitutional Bodies

38. Eection Commission

  • Composition
  • Independence
  • Powers and Functions
  • Notes and References

39. Union Public Service Commission

  • Composition
  • Removal
  • Independence
  • Functions
  • Limitations
  • Role
  • Notes and References

40. State Public Service Commission

  • Composition
  • Removal
  • Independence
  • Functions
  • Limitations
  • Role
  • Joint State Public Service Commission
  • Notes and References

41. Finance Commission

  • Composition
  • Functions
  • Advisory Role
  • Impact of Planning Commission
  • Commissions Appointed
  • Notes and References

42. National Commission for SC s

  • Evolution of the Commission
  • Functions of the Commission
  • Report of the Commission
  • Powers of the Commission
  • Notes and References

43. National Commission for ST s

  • Separate Commission for STs
  • Functions of the Commission
  • Other Functions of the Commission
  • Report of the Commission
  • Powers of the Commission
  • Notes and References

44. Special Officer for Linguistic Minorities

  • Constitutional Provisions
  • Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities
  • Role
  • Vision and Mission
  • Functions and Objectives
  • Notes and References

45. Comptroller and Auditor General of India

  • Appointment and Term
  • Independence
  • Duties and Powers
  • Role
  • Cag and Corporations
  • Appleby’s Criticism
  • Notes and References

46. Attorney General of India

  • Appointment and Term
  • Duties and Functions
  • Rights and Limitations
  • Solicitor General of India
  • Notes and References

47. Advocate General of the State

  • Appointment and Term
  • Duties and Functions
  • Notes and References

Non-Constitutional Bodies

48. Planning Commission

  • Functions
  • Composition
  • Internal Organisation
  • Personnel
  • Programme Evaluation Organisation
  • Critical Evaluation
  • Notes and References

49. National Development Council

  • Composition
  • Objectives
  • Functions
  • Critical Evaluation
  • Notes and References

50. National Human Rights Commission

  • Establishment of the Human Rights Commission
  • Composition of the Commission
  • Functions of the Commission
  • Working of the Commission
  • Role of the Commission
  • Performance of the Commission
  • Human Rights (Amendment) Act,
  • Notes and References

51. State Human Rights Commission

  • Composition of the Commission
  • Functions of the Commission
  • Working of the Commission
  • Human Rights Courts
  • Notes and References

52. Central Information Commission

  • Composition
  • Tenure and Service Conditions
  • Powers and Functions
  • Notes and References

53. State Information Commission

  • Composition
  • Tenure and Service Conditions
  • Powers and Functions
  • Notes and References

54. C entral Vigilance Commission

  • Composition
  • Organisation
  • Functions
  • Jurisdiction
  • Working
  • Notes and References

55. Central Bureau of Investigation

  • Establishment of CBI
  • Motto, Mission and Vision of CBI
  • Organisation of CBI
  • Composition of CBI
  • Functions of CBI
  • CBI vs. State Police
  • CBI Academy
  • Notes and References

56. Lokpal and Lokayuktas

  • Global Scenario
  • Lokpal
  • Lokayuktas
  • Notes and References

Part IX
Other Constitutional Dimensions

57. Co-operative Societies

  • Constitutional Provisions
  • Reasons for the 97th Amendment
  • Notes and References

58. Official Language

  • Language of the Union
  • Regional Languages
  • Language of the Judiciary and Texts of Laws
  • Special Directives
  • Notes and References

59. Public Services

  • Classification of Services
  • Constitutional Provisions
  • Notes and References

60. Tribunals

  • Administrative Tribunals
  • Tribunals for Other Matters
  • Notes and References

61. Rights and Liabilities of the Government

  • Property of the Union and the States
  • Suits by or Against the Government
  • Suits Against Public Officials
  • Notes and References

62. Authoritative Text of the Constitution in Hindi L anguage

  • Constitutional Provisions
  • Reasons for the 58th Amendment
  • Notes and References

63. Special Provisions Relating to Certain Classes

  • Rationale of Special Provisions
  • Specification of Classes
  • Components of Special Provisions
  • Notes and References

Part X
Political Dynamics

64. Political Parties

  • Meaning and Types
  • Party System in India
  • Recognition of National and State Parties
  • Notes and References

65. Elections

  • Electoral System
  • Election Machinery
  • Election Process
  • Notes and References

66. Electoral Reforms

  • Committees Related to Electoral Reforms
  • Electoral Reforms Before 1996
  • Electoral Reforms of 1996
  • Electoral Reforms After 1996
  • Electoral Reforms Since 2010
  • Notes and References

67. Anti-Defection Law

  • Provisions of the Act
  • Evaluation of the Act
  • 91st Amendment Act (2003)
  • Notes and References

68. Pressure Groups

  • Meaning and Techniques
  • Pressure Groups in India
  • Notes and References

69. National Integration

  • Meaning of National Integration
  • Obstacles to National Integration
  • National Integration Council
  • National Foundation for Communal Harmony
  • Notes and References

70. Foreign Policy

  • Principles of Indian Foreign Policy
  • Objectives of Indian Foreign Policy
  • Look East Policy of India
  • Gujral Doctrine of India
  • Nuclear Doctrine of India
  • Notes and References

Part XI
Working of the Constitution

71. National Commission to Review the Working of the Constitution

  • Terms of Reference of the Commission
  • Fifty Years of Working of the Constitution
  • Areas of Concern: Commission’s Perception
  • Recommendations of the Commission
  • Notes and References


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